Cannabinoid: a cannabinoid is a naturally occurring chemical compound found in various systems. In plants it is called phytocannabinoid, and in humans, endocannabinoid. Phytocannabinoids binds to the cannabinoid receptors present in mammals, similarly to endogenous endocanabinoids. More than 100 cannabinoids have been isolated from the cannabis plant and are under study for their various effects on the body and mind. The best studied cannabinoids are THC, CBD and CBN.
CBD: Cannabidiol. Discovered in 1940, it is one of the main cannabinoids found in Cannabis, constituting up to 40% of its extract. CBD works indirectly with the body’s endocannabinoid system. The endocannabinoid system is made up of two key receptors: CB1 and CB2, located on the central and peripheral nervous systems. Recent comprehensive reviews suggest that CBD is one of the most promising therapeutic compounds for a range of conditions such as chronic pain, anxiety, epilepsy and others. In 2018, the World Health Organization published a report confirming the safety profile of CBD.
Endocannabinoid: the naturally occurring cannabinoid in mammals that activates cannabinoid receptors.
Endocannabinoid System (ECS): the endogenous cannabinoid system is one of the most important physiologic systems involved in establishing and maintaining human health. It is constituted of endocannabinoids (neurotransmitters), receptors and enzymes. The receptors are found throughout the body: in the brain, organs, connective tissues, glands and immune cells. With its complex actions on our immune system, nervous system, and virtually all the body’s organs, the endocannabinoid system is a bridge between body and mind. Two primary cannabinoid receptors have been identified: CB1 and CB2, found throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems.
Entourage effect: a mechanism by which phytocannabinoids and terpenes work synergistically to provide enhanced therapeutic benefits. Empirical data and patients testimony tend to show that when CBD is taken together with other cannabinoids (including THC), flavonoids and terpenes, it is more effective.
Flavonoids: Flavonoids are a diverse group of phytonutrients (plant chemicals) found in almost all fruits and vegetables. Along with carotenoids, they are responsible for the vivid colors in fruits and vegetables. Flavonoids are the largest group of phytonutrients, with more than 6,000 types.
Full Spectrum: an oil is full spectrum when it contains all the cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids that are naturally occurring in the cannabis plant. CBD oils are full spectrum when they contain also traces amount of THC. CBD isolates and synthetic CBD oils are not full spectrum.
Phytocannabinoid: the naturally occurring cannabinoid found in the cannabis plants.
Terpenes: refers to a large group of volatile unsaturated hydrocarbons found in plants, especially conifers and citrus trees. They often have a strong odor and may protect the plants that produce them by deterring herbivores and by attracting predators and parasites of herbivores. They are under scientific review for their health benefits and the interaction mechanism with cannabinoids.
THC: Tetrahydrocannabinol. THC is one of the 113 cannabinoids identified in Cannabis and the principal psychotropic compound of the plant family. This chemical compound is listed under Schedule I of the UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances.